##### Lesson 1

#### Volumetric Properties of Pure Fluids

Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamic

Volumetric Properties of Pure Fluids

• Introduction to volumetric properties

• PVT behaviour of pure substances

• Volumetric properties from equations of state :

o Ideal gas equation

o Virial equation

o Generic cubic equations

• Volumetric properties from generalized correlations :

o Gases

o Liquid

• Volumetric properties from thermodynamic Tables and Diagrams

It is expected that students will have the ability to :

· Determine the state/phase of a given fluid at given conditions.

· Compare and contrast the various equations of state and generalized correlations.

· Identify the applicability and limitation of every equation of state.

· Determine the volumetric properties from thermodynamic tables and diagrams.

##### Lesson 2

#### Heat Effects

Heat Effects

· Introduction to different types of heat effects in thermodynamics

· Sensible heat and heat capacity

o Constant-volume heat capacity

o Constant-pressure heat capacity

o The temperature dependency of the heat capacity

· Latent heat

o Introduction to different types of latent heat

o Latent heat calculations and estimations.

· Standard heat of reaction

o Calculation using standard heat of formations

· Example of Heat effects of industrial reactions

It is expected that students will have the ability to:

· Differentiate the different types of heat effects and their importance in chemical engineering.

· Calculate the enthalpy change for ideal fluids at any given conditions

· Construct the hypothetical path for enthalpy change calculations.

· Calculate the heat transfer to/from the system that involves in the physical or chemical processes.

· Apply the enthalpy calculation in the energy balance for open and closed systems.

##### Lesson 3

#### Thermodynamic Properties for Fluids

Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids

• Introduction to thermodynamic properties

• Fundamental property relations for homogeneous phases

• Residual properties

◦ Equation of state

◦ Generalized correlation

◦ Table and Diagram of Thermodynamic Properties

• Heterogeneous phase (Two phases system)

• Thermodynamic properties from thermodynamic tables and diagrams.

It is expected that students will have the ability to:

· Derive and apply the relation of the canonical parameters (e.g. T and P) and thermodynamic properties (e.g. H, U, S, and G).

· Estimate the entropy and enthalpy for the real fluid using residual properties.

• Calculate the thermodynamic properties of the system at any specified conditions.

##### Lesson 4

#### Solution Thermodynamics : Theory and Derivation

Solution Thermodynamics : Theory

• Introduction to solution thermodynamics

• The chemical potential and phase equilibria

• Pure, partial, and solution properties

◦ Ideal gas mixtures

◦ Ideal solution and Lewis Randall rule

• Fugacity and Fugacity Coefficient

Pure species

◦ Solution fugacity and fugacity coefficient

◦ Fugacity coefficient and residual- property relation

◦ Fugacity coefficient from virial equation of states

◦ Generalized correlation for the fugacity coefficient

• Excess Properties

◦ Fundamental excess-property relation

◦ The excess Gibbs energy and activity coefficient

◦ The nature of excess property

It is expected that students will have the ability to :

· Define and describe the important of the thermodynamic terms such as partial and residual properties, fugacity and fugacity coefficient in chemical engineering.

· Differentiate the difference between pure, partial, and solution properties.

· Estimate the fugacity and fugacity coefficient for given pure (ideal or real), and

mixture species at specified conditions and approaches.

##### Lesson 5

#### Solution Thermodynamics : Models for Y, and The Gamma / Phi Formulation Property Change of Mixing

Solution Thermodynamics : Application

• Liquid Phase Properties from VLE data

o Fugacity and fugacity coefficient

o Activity and activity coefficient

o Excess Gibbs energy and activity coefficient

o Models for excess Gibbs energy

• The Gamma/Phi Formulation of VLE

• Property changes of mixing

• Heat effects of mixing processes

o Heat of solution

o Enthalpy/concentration Diagram

It is expected that students will have the ability to :

• Define the terms of fugacity and fugacity coefficient, activity, and activity coefficient.

• Analyze experimental VLE data for getting a simple model of excess Gibbs energy.

• Identify at which the fluid can be assumed as an ideal or non-ideal solution.

• Derive and calculate the activity coefficient from experimental data and model excess Gibbs energy.

• Evaluate the property changes due to mixing of given system and conditions.

• Calculate the heat requirement for given process and conditions.

##### Lesson 6

#### Vapour / Liquid Equilibrium : Introduction and Application

Physical Equilibria

• Introduction to equilibrium systems

• The equilibrium criteria and stability

• The phase rule – Duhem’s theorem

• Introduction to vapor/liquid Equilibria (VLE)

• VLE Behaviour and models

• VLE for low to moderate pressure system

◦ Raoult’s Law -Ideal gas and ideal solution (simple model)

◦ Modified Raoult’s Law

◦ Henry’s Law

• VLE for high pressure system

◦ VLE from equation of state.

◦ K-Value correlation

• Flash calculation.

It is expected that students will have the ability to :

• Describe the behaviour of VLE and how to simplify the VLE problem.

• Derive and simplify equations of VLE.

• Apply simplified VLE equations to obtain data for P-XY, T-XY and X-Y diagrams.

• Apply Raoult’s law and Henry’s law to solve simple thermodynamic problems.

• Carry out bubble and dew point calculations for a given mixture

• Carry out flash calculation in order to determine the vapor/liquid fraction as well as the mixture composition of each phase at specified conditions using available K-Values etc.

##### Lesson 7

#### Chemical Reaction Equilibrium

Chemical Reaction Equilibria

• Introduction to chemical equilibria

• The reaction coordinate

• Application of equilibrium criteria to chemical reactions

• The standard Gibbs-energy change and the equilibrium constant

• Effect of temperature on the Equilibrium constant

• Evaluation of equilibrium constants

• Relation of equilibrium constants to composition

◦ Single reaction

◦ Multiple reactions

• Phase rule and Duhem’s theorem for reacting system

It is expected that students have the ability to :

• Describe the chemical reaction equilibria and it’s important in chemical engineering.

• Derive excess Gibbs energy equation to evaluate equilibrium constant (K) for a given reaction and conditions.

• Evaluate the equilibrium constant from diagram or Excess Gibbs energy for given reaction and conditions

• Apply the equilibrium constant to determine equilibrium conversion and to calculate reaction mixture equilibrium compositions.

• Solve the mass balance around the reactor at the equilibrium state.