• PM Dr. Sharifah Hafizah bt. Syed Ariffin
  • PM Dr. Khairiyah Mohd. Yusof
  • Dr. Adibah Abdul Latif



Introduction to Problem-based learning

UTM Problem-based learning method are based on the PoPBL method (Problem Oriented Project-Based Learning and CPBL (Cooperative Problem-Based Learning). Through PBL, students need to identify, analyze, collect data, make decisions, identify the best solutions and implement decisions in solving a given problem.

  • PBL is a learning approach which uses problems as the basic in the learning process.
  • Student-centred learning. Students are only given guidance by the teacher to solve the problems. No direct teaching.
  • Teachers should be ingenious in creating problems relevance to the topic taught.
  • Use real-life problems.
  • Students use prior knowledge and experiences during the teaching and learning processes.
  • Learning activities are the basics of the processes in PBL.
  • Involve “deep” learning.
  • Cooperative learning in the groups.
  • PBL is an active and reflective learning process.


According to Wee (2014), there are various models which can be used in carrying out the PBL process

Processes and procedures in implementing PBL

Temasek Polytechnics, Singapore

  1. Select the learning groups
  2. Identify the problems
  3. Brainstorm the ideas
  4. Identify learning issues
  5. Self-learning process
  6. Synthesize the knowledge
  7. Reflect and receive feedback


Medicine School, Southern Illinois, USA

  1. Introduce the group members
  2. Set the scenario
  3. Select objectives
  4. Identify problems
  5. Identify facts
  6. Explore the ideas
  7. Identify learning issues
  8. Propose action plan
  9. Focus on learning outcomes
  10. Identify resources
  11. Self-learning process
  12. Assess the resources
  13. Assess the problems based on new knowledge obtained
  14. Suggest problem solutions
  15. Self and peer evaluation


Newcastle University, Australia

  1. Seek the problems
  2. Gather information via on-line resources
  3. Identify the problems
  4. Identify the learning issues
  5. Self-learning process
  6. Apply knowledge and submit written report
  7. Generate self-evaluation checklists
  8. Feedback from facilitators
  9. Students submit the report based on feedback received


Gimmer University, United Kingdom

  1. Two groups are given similar problem
  2. First group acts as a consultant and the other group acts as a problem solver
  3. Third group acts as a client and use criteria to assess the problem
  4. The clients and the consultants produce their own critics
  5. Meeting between the client and the consultant.


University of Lambert, United Kingdom

  1. Introduce PBL – students write about their learning in journal
  2. Assign tasks to the students
  3. Deal with the problems in group and individually
  4. Present orally and submit report
  5. Provide self and peer evaluation