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  • Tuan Haji Yahya Samian (FKM)
  • Assoc. Prof. Wardah Zainal Abidin (UTM AIS)
  • Dr. Rossilah Jamil (IBS)
  • Assoc. Prof. Dr. Zaiton Abdul Majid (FS)



Case studies:

Case study teaching has been reported as a highly effective pedagogy (Ozdilek, 2014) that emphasises the constructivist or actie learning approach (Sudzina, 1997; Tan, Guo, Zheng, & Zhong, 2014) to instruction and engages learners in critical thinking as a process of solving problems (Popil, 2011; Schwartz, 2015). The problem must be based on a real case or event as experienced by an individual, organization, or nation. The activities of solving real problems are proven to gain students’ engagement (Taylor & Parsons, 2011) and attention and get involved in the learning process (Tan et al., 2014). The case study approach offers many advantages. Students are trained to arrange ideas and perform discussion based on facts, which, makes their arguments more structured, sensible, and believable. According to Velenchik et al. (2016) and Watson and Sutton (2012), the case study approach in teaching helps develop students’ skill in:

  1. Problem solving
  2. Analytical tools, quantitative and/or qualitative, depending on the case
  3. Decision making in complex situations
  4. Coping with ambiguities


Teaching manuals include:

  • the basic premise of the case study
  • how a case study can be used within a course
  • learning objectives
  • assignment questions
  • a typical class discussion flow
  • key takeaways
  • additional information such as board plans, informational slides, exercises, volunteer instructions, and updates or epilogues to the case study



  • Are put squarely in the shoes of real people wrestling with real dilemmas
  • Argue and defend their advice for the protagonist
  • Learn how to approach and solve problems
  • Interact with their peers through debate, presentations, and ad hoc role plays



  • May assign questions prior to class to focus participants on particular issues
  • Identify participants who hold opposing views and ask questions to stimulate debate
  • Assign participants to stakeholder groups with different points of view of the situation
  • Encourage input from all sides until the participants uncover most or all of the learning points
  • Lead participants to a moment of sudden insight or discovery during which conventional wisdom is trumped by deeper, more seasoned insights