Semester : Semester I 2010/2011 _______________________________________________________________________ Lecturer : ADIBAH BINTI YAHYA _______________________________________________________________________ Synopsis :

This course facilitates students to understand the concept and principle in general microbiology. Required skills in microbiology are acquired by performing hands-on activities in laboratory. All practical sessions are guided and arranged in separate sessions to provide adequate time for students to develop their technical skills, particularly in techniques related to sterilization, aseptic, microbial handling, microscopy observation, as well as techniques in monitoring and measuring growth of microorganism. Students are also exposed to the knowledge for designing and setting up microbiology laboratory. Classroom discussions are focused to develop understanding on the process to isolate microorganisms from environment that include some basic explanation on the type of tools and techniques necessary for this process. Various classes of microorganisms are differentiated, mainly those of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Their cellular organization is identified and the functions of each cellular component are explained and illustrated. Factors such as nutrient requirement and physical conditions that influencing growth and metabolism are discussed, which further develop to the discussion on the microbial metabolic diversity and the ability to control microbial growth. Different classes of microbes such as fungi, algae, protozoa as well as their beneficial applications are also looked into. Discussion on physical and chemical control of microbial growth is part of the role of microorganisms in controlling diseases caused by microorganisms. Application of microbes in industries such as food, beverages and in environment will be briefly highlighted.

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Lesson 1 (Part 1)

Basic Concepts In Microbiology, Aseptic Techniques and Instrumentation

This chapter introduces some important history in microbiology from the first observation of microorganisms to the more advance discipline in microbiology. Basic introduction to different types of microorganisms is also highlighted.

1. History in Microbiology
2. Cell and its classes : bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses

Lesson 1 (Part 2)

Basic Concepts In Microbiology, Aseptic Techniques and Instrumentation

This chapter introduces some important history in microbiology from the first observation of microorganisms to the more advance discipline in microbiology. Basic introduction to different types of microorganisms is also highlighted.

3. Techniques and tools in microbiology

Lesson 2

Microbial Growth Control and Sterilization

This topic facilitate student to understand the method practised by microbiologist or laboratory operator to ensure controlled growth of microbes in the lab. In order to understand this topic student will be given opportunities to perform laboratory excercise in aseptic techniques and sterilization process. Full explanation of various sterilization strategies will be discussed and comparisons between different strategies are made to ensure student ability to choose or identify correct sterilization method

Lesson 3

Basic Requirement for Microbiology Laboratory Design and Setup

This chapter covers several aspects that should be considered in designing and setting up microbiology laboratory
1. Identifying laboratory specification : Design and function
2. Laboratory Requirements: facilities, equipments and materials
3. Important instrument in microbiology laboratory
· Microscope : types and function
· Safety cabinet for aseptic work
· Sterilization equipments
· Microbial growth incubators
· Microbial culturing tools, etc
· weighing balances, pH meter
· spectrophotometer, etc
4. Sketching and drawing

    Lesson 4

    Cellular Organisation and Function : Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

    This topic explain, identify, compare and illustrate structural organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The function of each cellular component is described appropriately to enable students ability to integrate functional mechanism of each cellular component in its activity that determine growth. Classroom discussion is focused on the following aspects:

    1. External and internal cell structure of prokaryote and eukaryote
    2. Staining of microbial cells
    3. Functions of cellular structure
    4. Osmosis and water transports
    5. Transport of materials through cell membrane

      Lesson 5

      Microbial Growth and Its Requirement

      This topic explain, identify, compare and illustrate structural organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The function of each cellular component is described appropriately that enable students to relate between the characteristics of each cellular structure to its function in cellular growth and survival.

        Lesson 6

        Enumeration of microbial cells

        This topic explains the varieties of method can be used to monitor growth of microorganisms with different characteristics. Students are also explained to the type of data collected and how these raw data are analysed using basic calculation concept to generate secondary data such as growth rate, doubling time of microbes, number of generation and generation time.

          Lesson 7

          Microbial metabolism

          Classroom discussion on this chapter helps student to understand the central metabolic pathways of microorganisms including glycolysis, Krebs cycle, photosynthetic pathway, fermentation and etc. Lecture will be given based on the following sequence:

          1. Basic reactions underlying metabolism
          2. Carbohydrate catabolism, photosynthesis and other pathways
          3. Anabolic pathways

            Lesson 8

            Microbial Metabolic Diversity

            The diversity of microorganisms is generallly related to various environmental factors such as temperature, pH, salinity, pressure, moisture and oxygen content. Implication to these environmental variations, microbes developed to adopt different metabolic strategies to ensure growth and survival of the cells. In this topic students will be explained on how microbes are classified based on their metabolic capability and how these different class of microbes can be isolated from environment

              Lesson 9

              Microbial Genetics

              This chapter briefly describes on the microbial genetics, to allow student to appreciate and understand function of the internal structure of cellular responsible for growth and survival of the cells, functions of genes in expression of enzymes for anabolic and catabolic metabolism. Discussions are focused on the following aspects

              1. Microbial genomes : structure and replication
              2. Gene functions
              3. Gene mutation, recombination and transfer